(ASHUR-AHHE-IDDINA in assyrian; reigned 680–669 B.C.)
   Assyrian king, son and successor of Sennacherib, who had been assassinated in a palace coup. According to Esarhaddon’s own inscriptions, his father had destined him, though the youngest, to be his heir in view of the fact that his eldest son had died in Elam. In the ensuing fight for the throne, Esarhaddon prevailed and was crowned at Nineveh on the eighth of Adar 681. The main event of his career was the invasion of Egypt, which had changed its policy from being pro-Assyrian to fomenting revolts. In 671, after an abortive first effort three years before, he crossed the desert of Sinai with the help of Arab camels carrying water for the troops and fought three victorious battles against the Egyptians. He seized Memphis and took the son of the pharaoh Taharka prisoner. Esarhaddon had to repress numerous rebellions, such as that of Sidon in 677. He also had to campaign in Anatolia, where nomadic tribes from the east, the Cimmerians and Scythians, caused a good deal of trouble in Assyrian provinces. Toward Babylonia he pursued a policy of appeasement and began a program of reconstruction and redevelopment; he resettled exiled inhabitants and and restored to them their property. Esarhaddon also rebuilt the temple precinct of Babylon that had been destroyed by Sennacherib.
   Wary about the difficulties of a peaceful transition of power to his sons, he drew up a document affirming the succession of his younger son Ashurbanipal that stipulated that the older brother and crown prince Shamash-shumu-ukin was to be king of Babylon. All his vassals and the Assyrian nobility were sworn by oath to honor this proclamation. It was to be the cause of a bloody war between the brothers, which devastated Babylonia. In 669, Esarhaddon died on campaign on the way to Egypt.

Historical Dictionary of Mesopotamia. . 2012.

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  • Esarhaddon — (Greek and Biblical form; Akkadian Aššur ahhe iddina Ashur has given a brother to me ), was a king of Assyria who reigned 681 – 669 BC. He was the youngest son of Sennacherib and the Aramean queen Naqi a (Zakitu), Sennacherib s second wife. Rise… …   Wikipedia

  • ESARHADDON — (Akk. Aššur ah (a) iddina, Ashur has given me a brother (for the other siblings); Heb. אֵסַר־חַדּוֹן), king of Assyria from 680 to 669 B.C.E., third ruler of the Sargonid dynasty. Though a younger son, he was preferred for the succession because… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Esarhaddon — /ee sahr had n/, n. (Assur akh iddin) died 669 B.C., king of Assyria 681 669 B.C. * * * ▪ king of Assyria also spelled  Essarhaddon , Assyrian  Ashur aha iddina (“Ashur Has Given Me a Brother”)  flourished 7th century BC    king of Assyria… …   Universalium

  • Esarhaddon — (reigned ca. 680 669 b.c.)    one of the most accomplished of the kings of the Assyrian Empire and the first to successfully invade Egypt. Esarhaddon and his brothers assassinated their father, Sennacherib, in 681 b.c.; after a struggle among the …   Ancient Mesopotamia dictioary

  • Esarhaddon — King of Assyria 681 669 BC.     Esarhaddon was the son of King *Sennacherib and he came into conflict with *Taharka, King of Egypt; details of his campaign against Egypt (which followed his subjugation of Syria) are preserved in cuneiform texts… …   Ancient Egypt

  • Esarhaddon —    Assur has given a brother, successor of Sennacherib (2 Kings 19:37; Isa. 37:38). He ascended the throne about B.C. 681. Nothing further is recorded of him in Scripture, except that he settled certain colonists in Samaria (Ezra 4:2). But from… …   Easton's Bible Dictionary

  • Esarhaddon — King of Assyria, 681–669 BCE. He exacted tribute from Israel and Judah and rebuilt Babylon, for which he required materials from subject peoples …   Dictionary of the Bible

  • Esarhaddon — /ee sahr had n/, n. (Assur akh iddin) died 669 B.C., king of Assyria 681 669 B.C …   Useful english dictionary

  • Assarhaddón — (Esarhaddon) ► Rey de Asiria en 681 669 a C, hijo de Senaquerib y padre de Assurbanipal. Llevó sus conquistas hasta Egipto …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Ashurbanipal — King of Assyria Ashurbanipal on a chariot during a royal lion hunt. Reign 668 – c. 627 BC Akkadian …   Wikipedia

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