(C. 2340 – C. 2154 B.C.)
   Dynasty founded by Sargon of Akkad. Sargon built on the success of Lugalzagesi of Uruk in unifying “Sumer and Akkad”; having defeated Lugalzagesi in battle, he established his own capital in the as yet unidentified city of Akkad. According to his own inscriptions, he campaigned widely beyond Mesopotamia and secured access to all the major trade routes, by sea and by land. His successors, Rimush, Manishtusu, Naram-Sin, and Shar-kali-sharri, all faced considerable opposition from the Sumerian cities that they more or less ruthlessly suppressed. After the reign of these five kings, a period of anarchy and disruption followed, probably caused to a great extent by the Gutian invasion. The much reduced kingdom of Akkad enjoyed greater stability under the reigns of Elulu (c. 2198–2195), Dudu (c. 2195–2174), and Shu-Turul (c. 2168–c. 2154). Various mountain tribes, referred to as the Guti in the Sumerian King List and other sources, had established themselves in the vicinity of Akkad, perhaps initially as mercenaries. According to the Sumerian King List, Akkad was destroyed by Ur-nigin of Uruk, who established another, short-lived dynasty that was in turn terminated by the “Gutian hordes.”

Historical Dictionary of Mesopotamia. . 2012.

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